Lesson Plan Topic 3.1

By Brenda Hoddinott

An illustrated guide to the order in which the lessons in this topic should be completed, and helpful information on the unique content of Drawspace lessons

This lesson plan/guide has five sections:

  • Sequential List of Core Lessons
  • Additional Activities
  • About Drawspace Lessons
  • Copyright Basics for Artists
  • For Art Educators

As an Aside

Lessons listed in the first section (Sequential List of Core Lessons) are all included in the Drawspace course-in-a-book: Introduction to Shading (Second Edition):


Figure 0

Shading is the magic that transforms lines on a piece of paper into realistic, three-dimensional objects and living beings. This topic is designed to gently immerse beginners into a broad range of shading techniques and styles.

Sequential List of Core Lessons

These 41 lessons are designed to be completed in the order listed in this section. The information, skills, and/or techniques in each lesson build on the previous lesson and prepare you for the next.

Figure 1


3.1.R1 Identifying Light and Shadow on Forms

How highlights, shadows, reflected light, and cast shadows help create the illusion of a three-dimensional reality

Figure 2


3.1.R2 Identifying Primary Light Sources

Examine values on drawing subjects to find clues that identify the directionality of the dominant light source

Figure 3


3.1.A1 Shade Simple Value Scales

Prepare five grades of pencils and then use them to shade two value scales: from light to dark and from dark to light

Figure 4


3.1.A2 Shade an Optical Illusion

Outline straight-sided shapes and add shading with four grades of pencils

Figure 5


3.1.A3 Shade Graduations of Values

Use pencil pressure and different grades of pencil to create seven different graduations

Figure 6


3.1.R3 How to use a Value Map

A four-step process to help you plan an appropriate method for adding shading to a drawing

Figure 7


3.1.A4 Use Shading to Create Forms

Use value maps and graduated shading to turn a circle, cube, and rectangle into realistic three-dimensional forms

Figure 8


3.1.R4 Checking out Squirkles in Drawings

A richly-illustrated discussion demonstrates the diversity of squirkling for a broad range of different drawing subjects

Figure 9


3.1.R5 Exploring Squirkled Value Scales

Popular techniques for rendering a range of different values with squirkles

Figure 10


3.1.A5 Squirkle Value Scales

Render six different value scales with squirkling by using line density, pencil grades, and pressure

Figure 11


3.1.R6 How to Squirkle Graduations

Examine various types of graduations and discover the process for squirkling smoothly flowing graduations

Figure 12


3.1.A6 Squirkle Graduations of Values

Use line density, pencil pressure, and different grades of pencils to squirkle smoothly flowing graduations

Figure 13


3.1.A9 Squirkle an Iris and a Pupil

Sketch the shapes of an iris, highlight, and pupil, and add shading with graduations of squirkles

Figure 14


3.1.R7 Exploring Hatching in Drawings

Check out the different shading effects made possible by a basic hatching technique of parallel straight lines.

Figure 15


3.1.R8 How to Hatch Value Scales

Examine different types of value scales created with hatching and find out how each is rendered

Figure 16


3.1.A10 Hatch Value Scales with Five Grades

Use hatching and five grades of pencils to render value scales that appear to be solid tones

Figure 17


3.1.A11 Mountains in the Style of Impressionism

Draw an impressionistic range of mountains shaded with the natural values of five different grades of pencils

Figure 18


3.1.A12 Use Line Density to Hatch Value Scales

Render five different value scales by varying the density of the hatching lines and using different grades of pencils

Figure 19


3.1.A13 Hatch an Abstract Design

Design an abstract composition and add shading with five different grades of pencils while varying line density

Figure 20


3.1.A14 Hatch Value Scales with Pencil Pressure

Render ten value scales of five solid tones by varying the pressure used with single grades of pencils

Figure 21


3.1.A21 Render Ribbons of Values

Vary the pressure used with five grades of pencils to create a design with five ribbons of different values

Figure 22


3.1.R9 Exploring Hatching Graduations

An illustrated discussion about various types of hatching graduations that are rendered with straight lines

Figure 23


3.1.R10 How to Hatch Graduations with One Grade

Examine the process of rendering three types of graduations by using one grade of pencil and side-by-side, straight hatching lines

Figure 24


3.1.A15 Use Five Grades to Hatch Five Graduations

Use pencil pressure to create a graduation of values with a 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B grade of pencil, and straight hatching lines

Figure 25


3.1.R12 How to Hatch a Graduation with Five Grades

Discover the process of rendering a single graduation with five grades of pencils and straight hatching lines

Figure 26


3.1.A16 Hatch a Single Graduation with Five Grades

Render a single graduation with a combination of five grades of pencils and straight hatching lines

Figure 27


3.1.A20 Sketch a Scene with Hatching Graduations

Use graduations, atmospheric perspective, and a shading map to draw a tranquil scene with a palm tree, an island, and calm water

Figure 28


3.1.A18 Hatch Vertical Lines of Random Lengths

Create two sets of randomly placed hatching lines of different lengths: one with long lines and the other with short lines

Figure 29


3.1.R14 How to Hatch Lengthways Graduations

Examine the process of rendering a graduation by using lengthways hatching lines and four grades of pencils

Figure 30


3.1.A19 Hatch Two Types of Lengthways Graduations

Render a graduation with long lines and another with short lines by using lengthways hatching lines

Figure 31


3.1.A17 Hatch Forms with Burnishing and Erasing

Learn two invaluable shading techniques for creating a smooth texture with hatching

Figure 32


3.1.R15 Checking out Contour Hatching

Examine graduations and drawings to see how curved hatching lines help create highly realistic textures and three-dimensional forms

Figure 33


3.1.R13 Rendering Contour Hatching Naturally

How to find and use your most natural drawing motions for shading with contour hatching

Figure 34


3.1.A22 Shade a Simple Form with Contour Hatching

Use curved hatching lines to smoothly render a graduation that depicts the illusion of form on a segment of a sphere

Figure 35


3.1.A23 Graduate Curved Hatching Lines Lengthways

Use contour hatching graduations to depict the illusion of depth by transforming a circular shape into a three-dimensional form

Figure 36


3.1.A25 Contour a Child's Straight Hair

Draw the realistically proportioned head of a young child with straight hair that curves around the contours of his cranium

Figure 37


3.1.R11 To Blend or Not to Blend

Tips and techniques for using blending tools to successfully blend shading graduations

Figure 38


3.1.A26 Shade and Blend Bobby Blob

Outline a shape, add graduated values with squirkles, and blend the shading to create a smooth three-dimensional cartoon face

Figure 39


3.1.A24 White Egg on a White Surface

Use squirkling graduations to define the form of a high key subject and hatching to render its cast shadow

Figure 40


3.1.A31 Turn a Shape into a Form

Use traditional shading techniques and five grades of pencils to render a three-dimensional form

Figure 41


3.1.A32 Shade the Realistic Forms of Leaves

Follow richly-illustrated, step-by-step instructions to draw a plant in the style of realism

Additional Activities

These two bonus lessons provide opportunities to enhance beginner shading skills.

Figure 42


3.1.A7 Squirkle Striped Graduations

Create a striped pattern and a bumpy texture with gently curving graduations

Figure 43


3.1.A8 Graduate Blobs and Globs

Design an arrangement of five overlapping shapes and use squirkling graduations and different grades of pencils to make the shapes appear three-dimensional

About Drawspace Lessons

Drawspace is logically organized into lessons, topics, and modules:

  • Lessons: Drawspace lessons are the foundation of Drawspace on which all books and courses are created.
  • Topics: A topic is a container for a series of related lessons that are separated into two categories: resources and activities.
  • Modules: A module is a container for a series of related topics.

Each series of related lessons is grouped together in a topic, and each series of related topics is grouped together in a module. Each Drawspace lesson is either a resource (requires no supplies) or an activity (requires supplies).

Resource: Information and/or Demonstrations

A resource (R) lesson is a heavily-illustrated mini textbook of information. Resources discuss and/or demonstrate art-related topics such as techniques, skills, styles, artists, philosophy, and/or history. The information in each resource serves as a reference for one or more related call-to-action activity lessons.

Activity: Call-to-Action Requiring Supplies

An activity (A) is a call-to-action assignment or project that requires supplies. Each activity includes a list of all supplies needed to complete the assignment(s).

Naming Conventions for Lessons

Each Drawspace lesson is assigned a unique number/letter curriculum code based on its:

  • Module number
  • Topic number in a module
  • Type of lesson: Resource (R) or Activity (A)
  • Rank (sequential ranking in a resource or activity)

An example of curriculum code for a published lesson is:

1.1.R15 Understanding Talent: Module 1; Topic 1; Resource R; Rank 15

In addition to a unique curriculum code, each lesson is also assigned a unique Drawspace Publishing ISBN number, which is then legally-registered with Library and Archives Canada and The Canadian ISBN Service System (CISS).

Sizing Up the Sidebars

Scattered throughout most lessons are sidebars filled with useful information related to the topics being discussed. There are six different types of sidebars and each is easily identified by a simple icon.

Figure 44


Definitions of visual art terms with a focus on the vocabulary of drawing and painting to help you better understand the content of lessons.

Figure 45

As an Aside

Inspirational and/or informative art-related information, such as contemporary and historical artists and their experiences and philosophies.

Figure 46


Invaluable info to save you time, energy, and frustration by suggesting easier ways to do some tasks or how to take better care of your supplies.

Figure 47


Better safe than sorry! Protect your drawings (or yourself) from potential mishaps by learning how to prevent problems before they begin.

Figure 48

Visual Challenge!

Enhance your ability to see as an artist by finding and/or examining specific art-related components in drawings or in your environment.

Figure 49


Gather your drawing supplies and try a new technique, spend additional time practicing a skill, and/or create a sketch or drawing.

Assigned Degree of Difficulty

Drawspace lessons are designed for students of all ages and abilities, including many for whom English is not their first language. The overall text content of lessons is simple and direct, but not dumbed-down.

Each author of a lesson selects the most appropriate level from the following six options:

  • Beginner (B): knows very little about drawing.
  • Beginner to Intermediate (BI): has basic drawing skills.
  • Beginner to Advanced (BA): includes all skill levels.
  • Intermediate (I): has a solid foundation of beginner skills and techniques.
  • Intermediate to Advanced (IA): has a solid foundation of intermediate techniques.
  • Advanced (A): aspires to learn advanced techniques within specific areas of expertise.

Copyright Basics for Artists

Copyright is a form of protection that grants artists of all disciplines the exclusive right to sell, reproduce, or exhibit their own original creations.

You are Protected

Artists who live in a country that has signed the Berne Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property (also known as the Berne Convention) automatically own the copyrights to their completed original creations. An artwork can only be considered original if you were the first to bring the work from its intellectual conception to its creative conclusion.

Artworks that you create from step-by-step lessons are completely yours to display, share, reproduce, and add to a website, but are not considered original.

Drawspace is Protected

All Drawspace published lessons, books, and illustrations are also copyright protected by the Berne Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property (also known as the Berne Convention), Library and Archives Canada, and The Canadian ISBN Service System (CISS).

Drawspace content may not be shared, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transferred, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written consent of the author and Drawspace Publishing.

Info for Art Educators

Drawspace lessons and books are used by home-schooling families, private art teachers, and art educators in diverse learning environments such as schools, colleges, universities, recreational organizations, and senior centers. All resources and activities can be worked.

Lessons in this topic are authored by

Brenda Hoddinott

Figure 50

Award-winning artist, illustrator, art educator, curriculum designer, forensic artist (retired), owner of Drawspace.com and Drawspace Publishing, and author of numerous art instruction books.