Supplies: paper, pencils (2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B), sharpener, sandpaper block, erasers
This activity has three sections:
- Outline the Head and Face
- Add a Full Range of Values to Hair
- Shade the Face, Neck, and Clothing
Drawing Space: The specific shape (such as a rectangle) in which a drawing is rendered.
As you draw, press lightly on your pencil. The drawing space and some outlines need to be erased later.
Outline the Head and Face
1. Use a ruler and an HB pencil to lightly draw a rectangular drawing space (Figure 1).
Each vertical side is 7.5 in (19.1 cm) and the top and bottom are 6 in (15.2 cm).
2. Use a ruler to find the center point of the top and bottom and mark each with a dot.
3. Connect these two dots with a vertical line.
4. Mark a dot at the center point of each vertical side and connect these two dots with a horizontal line.
5. Use an HB pencil to sketch almond shapes as the eyes (Figures 2 and 3).
Before you begin, examine Figure 2 and note that the distance between:
- the eyes is slightly wider than the width of an eye.
- the outer edge of each eye and its side of the drawing space is less than twice the width of an eye.
Iris: The colored circular shape of an eye that surrounds the pupil.
Pupil: The dark circular shape within the iris that expands or constricts under different lighting conditions.
Highlight: A small section on a drawing that is left white to identify the brightest area where light bounces off its surface.
6. Lightly outline the iris, pupil, and highlight in each eye (Figure 3).
7. Draw curved lines to mark the locations of the upper and lower eyelids and the upper eyelid crease in each eye.
8. Draw a long, curved line as the lower edge of her face/chin.
This line extends into both lower rectangles.
9. Lightly outline the nose and mouth.
The nose is the same width as the distance between the eyes. The mouth is slightly wider.
10. Draw curved lines to identify the directions in which the hair falls around the forehead and face (Figure 4).
These lines serve as guides to help you shade the hair in the next section. Then, these strands of hair appear to be in front of her face.
11. Draw a short, curved line on the right to mark the lower edge of an ear.
12. Use curved lines to outline the outer edge of the hair (Figure 5).
This outline follows the perceived contour of her skull, which is hidden by the hair.
Note the strands of hair that connect to the contours of the facial outline added in Figure 4.
13. Draw two lines as the outer edges of her neck and add the outline of her sweater.
14. Compare your drawing to Figures 5 and 6 and erase and redraw any lines that don't look accurate.
15. Use a kneaded eraser to erase the drawing space and lighten your drawing (Figure 6).
Hatching: A series of straight and/or curved lines drawn closely together to give the illusion of values.
Use mostly light to medium values when shading Ashley's hair. Too much dark shading can quickly turn light brown, red, or blond hair into dark hair.
Examine Figures 7 to 9 and note the:
- directions in which the hatching lines curve.
- different lengths and values of these lines.
- lightest values and white sections that create both shine and form.
- untidy hairs along the outer edges that help create a natural appearance.
Add a Full Range of Values to Hair
A perceived light source shining from the frontal right identifies the various values.
Peek ahead to Figure 9 and note that even the darkest sections of hair are shaded with mostly medium values.
16. Use sharpened 2H and HB pencils to add light and medium values to the sections of hair on the top and left (Figure 7).
Curved hatching lines (contour hatching) are ideal to shade hair.
Place a sheet of clean paper under your hand as you add shading to prevent smudging and to protect your drawing from the oils in your skin.
When you work on a new section, move your paper so it's still under your hand.
17. Add light and medium values to the hair over her forehead and on the other side of the head (Figure 8).
18. Use 4B and 6B pencils to add dark values to the darker sections of hair shown in Figure 9.
Begin by adding only a few shading lines to each section that is dark. You then have the option of adding more lines to make the shading darker.
19. Add a few more light lines that graduate the dark shading into sections left white.
20. Shade the section of an ear under the hair.
21. Draw a few stray hairs in front of the ear.
Shade the Face, Neck, and Clothing
22. Refer to Figure 10 to add shading to the iris of each eye.
Note that the shading of the iris is darker under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is outlined.
23. Use a 4B or 6B pencil, to shade in the pupil.
24. Add shading to the upper and lower eyelids, whites of the eyes, and inner corners of the eyes (Figure 11).
25. Use a sharpened HB pencil to draw fewer eyelashes than you think there should be.
Note that the upper and lower eyelashes:
- grow in many directions.
- are different lengths and thicknesses.
- are curved and appear thicker close to the eyelids.
26. Use an HB pencil to lightly draw the visible sections of her eyebrows (Figure 12).
27. Add a few thin, wispy hairs extending onto her face.
28. Use 2H and HB pencils to add shading around the eyes and along both sides of the face.
Don't press too hard on your pencil. You can darken this shading later.
29. Use 2H and HB pencils to add medium shading to the nose and the surrounding facial forms (Figure 13).
Note sections that have light values, or are left white.
30. Add darker shading inside the nostrils and the shadow sections of the nose.
31. Shade the mouth with curved lines that follow the contours of each lip (Figure 14).
Naturally, lips don't have outlines. Use values from dark (between the lips) to light (the shiny section on the lower lip).
Note a lighter section on her face surrounding the perimeter of the mouth (Figure 15).
32. Add shading to the rest of the face.
Note that the shading around the edges of the face does not extend completely to the edges.
33. Outline the sides of the neck, and add shading to the sections under the chin.
To make the soft skin of a child appear smoother and more realistic:
- Vary the lengths of the shading lines.
- Add a thin, short line inside any unwanted gaps or spaces between shading lines.
34. Refer to Figure 16 to touch up sections of the face and hair that you're not happy with.
If a section is too light, add a few more shading lines in between others.
To make a dark section of shading a little lighter, use a kneaded eraser to gently pat the shading.
Sign your drawing and write today's date on the back.